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THE SIMPLE TENSE

Youssef 25/09/2021

I ) THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE.

TENSE EXAMPLES MEANING



     
-It snows in Alaska.
– I watch television every day.
      In general, the simple present expresses events or situations that exist always, usually, habitually; they exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the future.

INTRODUCTION:

All verbs (except be) have one form for all persons except the third person singular. The third person singular is usually formed by adding –s to the simple, or infinitive form. After –ch, -s, -sh, -z and –x , es is added. Do and Go also form the third person by adding –es. Words ending in –y proceeded by a consonant take the –es ending after changing –y to –i. Notice that the third person singular form of have is hasExamples:

  Write Fix Try Go Be Have
I Write Fix Try Go Am Have
You Write Fix Try Go Are Have
He/She/It Writes Fixes Tries Goes Is Has
We Write Fix Try Go Are Have
They Write Fix Try Go Are Have

THE USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE ARE :

1) To express a condition that exists at the moment of speaking and may continue for a short time…

Examples:

– He is sick.

– They are angry.

– We are here.

– She seems happy about the news.

2) To express a general truth…

Examples:

– The sun rises from the East and sets in the west.

– The earth revolves around the sun.

3) To express the idea that an activity or capability existed before the moment of speaking, exists at the moment of speaking, and may continue for an indefinite time…

Examples:

– He lives on Wilson street.

– She speaks fluent English.

– My mother bakes wonderful pies..

4) To express a customary or a habitual action. Adverbs of frequency (often, usually, frequently….) are often used to help express this concept of time…

Examples:

– He often goes to the movies.

– I usually take the bus to work.

– I sometimes sleep late on Sunday.

5) To express future time. You will notice that adverbs indicating time are usually used in this construction. It is usually used with scheduling…

Examples:

– There is a meeting next week

– He leaves for Europe next week.

– The movie starts at night

II ) THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE.

TENSE EXAMPLES MEANING
(c) It snowed yesterday.
(d) I watched television last night.
      At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past.

A) INTRODUCTION :

The simple past tense of a regular verb is formed by adding ed or d to the base form. The past tense of most irregular verbs is formed by an internal vowel change, the form is the same for all persons both singular and plural…

Examples:

Regular Irregular
Talk Talked Speak Spoke
Agree Agreed Go Went
  • An exception is the verb be, which has two past tense forms :

            I was                           We were

            You were                    You were

He/she/ it was             They were

B) THE USES OF THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE ARE :

1) To express an activity that occurred at a time in the past. The time is specified by a definite time word such as: yesterday, last night, a year ago…Examples:

– It rained yesterday.

– He arrived last night.

– They came here a year ago.

2) To express an activity that occurred at an unspecified time in the past, the point of time is implied or understood from the context…Examples:

– He went to town.

– He came to see us about his schedule.

– He spoke to the captain about it.

3) To express an activity that occurred in the past over a continuous period of time but doesn’t continue to the present moment of speaking…Examples:

– He studied French when he was in high school.

– He worked for that company for weeks.

– The student attended school during the spring for five years.

N.B.: If a sentence contains when and has the simple past in both clauses the action in the when clause happens first…Examples:

– I stood under a tree when it began to rain.

– When she heard a strange noise, she got up to investigate.

C) FINAL –ed PRONUNCIATION IN REGULAR VERBS :

INTRODUCTION :

Final d and t problems: When the final –ed is added to regular verb to form the past tense, it may be pronounced one of three ways: d, t or ed.

HERE ARE THE RULES:

A) Regular verbs ending in an unvoiced consonant: p, f, k, s, x, etc.:

the final ed is pronounced as t…Example:

Simple verb. Past tense. Final sound.
Like Liked -t.
Pick Picked -t.
Puff Puffed -t.
Work Worked -t.

B) Regular verbs ending in a voiced consonant : n, l, r, b,  etc. :

the final ed is pronounced as –d…Example:

Simple verb. Past tense. Final sound.
Love Loved -d
Burn Burned -d
Call Called -d
Organize Organized -d

C) Regular verbs ending in the sound of –t or –d :

the final ed is pronounced as a separate syllable ending in a d sound…Example:

Simple verb. Past tense. Final sound.
Count Counted -ed
Start Started -ed
Add Added -ed
Need Needed -ed

D) Regular verbs ending in a vowel sound:

the final ed is pronounced as –d…Example:

Simple verb. Past tense. Final sound.
Dry Snowed -d
Snow Snowed -d
Play Played -d
Fry Fried -d

III ) THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE.

TENSE EXAMPLES MEANING
                          P      
(e) It will snow tomorrow. (f) I will watch television tonight.
      At one particular time in the future, this will happen.

   P

INTRODUCTION:

The future verb phrase is used to express an action that will take place in the future. In American English, will is used for all persons. Shall may also be used for the first person singular or plural in formal speech or writing. However, in today American English shall is seldom used. Will is often contracted with the subject pronoun: (I’ll, He’ll…..).

Shall is used with pronouns I and We for questions suggesting some activity or making offers or polite request or command…Examples:

– Shall we have dinner downtown tonight?

– Shall we get this place cleaned up before the major arrives?

– Shall we dance? ( a request to dance )

– Shall I pick you up at eight tonight? (an offer).

THE USES OF THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE ARE:

1) Will  versus  be  going  to :

To express a prediction, either will or be going to is used.

When the speaker is making a prediction (a statement about something he / she thinks will be true or will occur in the future either will or be gong to is used…Examples:

– According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.

– According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow.

2) To express a prior plan only be going to is used.

When the speaker is expressing a prior plan (something he intends to do in the future because in the past he has made a plan or decision to do it), only be going to is used…Examples:

– A: Why did you buy this paint?

– B: I am going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.

3) Sometimes will suggests more than simple futurity; it implies that the subject ( doer ) is psychologically willing to perform the action described by the main verb…Examples:

-A: The phone is ringing.

-B: I’ll get it.

-A: Will you help me lift this?

-B: I’ll be glad to. (I am willing to help you)

4) Using the present progressive and the simple present to express the future:

The present progressive may be used to express future time when the idea of the sentence concerns a planned event or definite intention…Examples:

– My wife has an appointment with a doctor, she is seeing Dr. North next week.

– John is leaving at noon tomorrow.

* The simple present can also be used to express future time in sentences that concerns events that are on a definite schedule or time table. These sentences usually contain future time word…Examples:

– The museum opens at ten tomorrow.

– Class begins next week.

– John’s plane arrives at 6:05 PM next week.